The purpose of this article and study was to develop a GIS based evacuation model for Southern Mississippi University in the unfortunate event of something happening.
The three major objectives were:
- Identify the number of evacuees and their potential origins and destinations
- Identify evacuation routes connecting origins and destinations based on shortest travel time
- Compute the total evacuation time of the stadium starting when the evacuation order is issued and ending when the last evacuee exits the evacuation zone
Even though this 33,000 seat stadium is smaller and would probably not be attacked, the structure and flow are the same of a larger stadium and can be applied and scaled.
To compute travel time within the stadium from different sitting areas to exit places, an audience layer was created by evenly distributing students and non-students within their respective sections of the stadium.
The second stage of the model included the evacuation of the stadium audience from the parking lots and mobile locations to their potential final destinations, which included nearby road networks and road intersections.
The last stage of the model was performed to estimate evacuation times and routes.
This photo shows a GIS based map for locations of mobile triages and parking lots.
From this study they found the fastest route for injured and uninjured attendees and found that the football practice field was the closest and optimal location for the ambulance to arrive at. Because of this in case of emergency USM has the optimal route and location for the fastest and easiest evacuation to get people to safety.
Zale, J. J. & Kar, B. (2012). A GIS-Based Football Stadium Evacuation Model. Southeastern Geographer 52(1), 70-89. The University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved February 27, 2017, from Project MUSE database.