Sunday, January 31, 2016

A Geometric Solar Radiation Model With Applications in Agriculture and Forestry

            Incoming solar radiation is fundamental to physical and biophysical processes because of its role in the energy and water balance. Insolation is a term that was coined as an expression for incoming solar radiation. Insolation affects processes like air, soil heating, evapotranspiration, photosynthesis, winds and snow melt. Currently there are not accurate maps that express insolation of a given area. These maps are needed for agriculture and forestry. They would be able to explain the soil temperature of a given area that is not a just an average based on an all-encompassing model for a specific area.
            Insolation monitoring stations are located in relatively flat locations where there is an abundance of human interaction. This could warp the data that these systems are trying to receive. These current models also assume the underlying surface is flat, which is not always the case and can warp the data as well. When insolation-monitoring stations are constructed, spatially based solar radiation models will provide a cost-efficient means for characterizing the spatial and temporal variation of insolation. This type of model will help create an accurate insolation map for the GIS analyst to help benefit those trying to see the soil temperature in agriculture and forestry.
            Looking at a case study, the researchers used seven different sampling sites to view insolation. The results show that there was a very different temperature regime between the different locations. The data shows that there is an inversely proportional relationship between temperature and elevation. The data also shows that insolation explains daily temperature variation.

            Using insolation-monitoring stations that are spatially based will help explain the fine-scale patterns across the landscape. This type of model will also help other applications involving the energy and water balance within agriculture and forestry and will be more cost efficient than the former system.

Fu, P., & Rich, P. M. (2002). A geometric solar radiation model with applications in         agriculture and forestry. Computers and electronics in agriculture37(1), 25-35.

Local Food Practices and Growing Potential: Mapping the Case of Philadelphia

The globalization of food systems, which is characterized by dependence on mechanization, fuel, fertilizers, and pesticides, causes many issues. Some of these issues are purely economic, such as deforestation, overuse of cropland, soil, and water pollution, and biodiversity loss. There have also been reports of recurring outbreaks of infectious diseases, and epidemics of obesity and diabetes. In order to change the trajectory of these globalized food systems, the practice of developing local food systems has sparked a movement.

Local food systems advocate for better health, nutrition, and lifestyle, along with social justice and food security, land preservation, environmental conservation, community and economic development, and urban greening. All in all, local food systems would be a great thing to bring to communities. Many scholars have researched sustainable food systems in local communities, but it wasn't until recently that research suggested combining remote sensing and GIS methods to in the analysis of urban green environments. Even though there has been research conducted on local food systems, urban areas have neglected to be studied.

Through informal interviews in Philadelphia, data was collected on the location and roles of different components of the food system itself. The above figure illustrates the geographic overlay of the components of the urban food system and the median income dataset. This map show that in Philadelphia, over 50% of the foods producing community gardens are found within the lowest income neighborhoods. Although this is the case, the local food movement targets middle and high-income populations. After more research was conducted, it was found that portions of the land that is occupied by grass and bare soil has the potential for food production, thus increasing the potential for local food systems.    

Kremer, P., & Deliberty, T. L. (2011). Local food practices and growing potential: Mapping the case of Philadelphia. Applied Geography, 31(4), 1252-1261.

Tropical Forests Were the Primary Sources of New Agricultural Land in the 1980s and 1990s

        The demand for agricultural products is becoming to be more and more each year. People depend on the "food, feed, and fuel,"and these products come from major agriculture croplands. So where do all these farmers get all this extra land for the major increase in demand for food? The main argument, is that while some say the extra land for the cropland is coming from areas that were previously cleared, others argue that this extra land is coming from intact rainforests. Rice, maize, soybeans, and oil palm are the main driver for the extra cropland needed. Since 2000, taking land from intact rainforests has increased by 6%, while using previously cleared land decreased by 4%. 
         The figure below shows the main areas salvaged for new agriculture farms. In every area, it shows that forest is mostly taken away for the new cropland, rather than plantations or land that had already been salvaged. 


        In conclusion, more than 80% of the land used for agriculture purposes came from intact and disturbed forests. In 2050, it is estimated that the demand for food and agricultural products will increase by 50%, and that these forests will be expected to provide for the extra land. Because of this, there will be more carbon dioxide emission because of the burning of the forests to make room for the agriculture land. However, REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation) has a plan to give farmers payments if they reduce their carbon emissions, so that is good incentive to reduced the killing of our forests. 

I have acted with honesty and integrity in producing this work and am unaware of anyone who has not. Nataley Ford

Gibbs, H. K., Ruesch, A. S., Achard, F., Clayton, M. K., Holmgren, P., Ramankutty, N., & Foley, J. A. (2010). Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences107(38), 16732-16737.

Food Desert study in Kansas

   A study was done in Lawrence, Kansas, to determine the presence of food deserts in the city. This study overlaps food studies in geography and GIS to obtain data and analyze it.
   Food desert are defined as "places in the urban environment of otherwise developed nations that are poorly served by access to healthful food," with "healthful food" here referring to vegetables, fruits and cereals (Hallet & McDermott). In order to determine which areas can be classified as food deserts, the authors of this study mapped the relationship between full-service grocers, public transportation, and population demographics.

It's important to note that in their research, the authors cited another study that found that "economies of scale allow food sold in supermarkets to be cheaper and to cover a wider range" than smaller, local, more high-end stores (Hallet & McDermott). Furthermore, the authors cited a study on relations between food, people, and place that found the assumption that "poor household pay less overall for their food" at the sacrifice of the quality of the food that is available to them (Hallet & McDermott).

Hallet and McDermott utilized GIS in their study, creating raster representations of the roads throughout Lawrence in order to help them quantify the cost of each path leading from neighborhoods to a grocery store. They then compared the costs of these paths to average costs of the items purchased at the grocery store to determine the percentage of people's food allowance that goes toward their travelling to the store.

Hallett, L. F., & McDermott, D. (2011). Quantifying the extent and cost of food deserts in Lawrence, Kansas, USA. Applied Geography31(4), 1210-1215.

Thursday, January 28, 2016

Voter Migration and the Geographic Sorting of the American Electorate

There has been some recent speculation about segregation between political parties throughout the nation (i.e., Republicans or Democrats being found in the same neighborhoods,) Many hypothesize that migration effects political criteria, and therefore creates one-sided neighborhoods. To prove this hypothesis, this study mapped migration patters of 2008 voters to voting booths, organizing them by political party. The maps show migration patterns from Portland, Oregon, separated by political party (democratic voters on the top, republican voters on the left).

These maps determined that both parties travel a similar distance to voting booths, but republican party members on average traveled a bit further. However, the next question that this study asks is why? Why go to a different area to cast your vote when there is a booth in your own neighborhood? To determine why these patterns occur, the study also analyzed factors in the decisions of these migration patterns. This information yielded that "partisans relocate based on destination characteristics such as racial composition, income, and population density but additionally prefer to relocate in areas populated with copartisans."

Tam Cho, W. K., Gimpel, J. G., & Hui, I. S. (2013). Voter migration and the geographic sorting of the American electorate. Annals of the Association of American Geographers103(4), 856-870.

Tuesday, January 26, 2016

Reconstructing History through GIS: Land Grants and Indigenous Agriculture in New Spain

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was Spain's colonial government over all its Central American land claims. It was essentially composed of the land of today's Mexico. Despite the limited documentation available from this time, the Viceroyalty's official land grants and their differences over time can give insight into what was happening in terms of relations between Spanish ranchers and Native American farmers. A study by Richard Hunter of State University of New York used three-dimensional GIS to map the ranchers' land grants over time, using data of the elevation, slope, and slope direction to show patterns in the types of land granted by the government in various years.
  • Between 1535 and 1544 (white squares) grants for ranches were on gentle slopes, low elevation slopes that faced south. Low elevation and southern-facing slope are good factors for agriculture, but also good factors for bountiful pasture, so the land-grantees were getting prime land at this time.
  • Between 1559 and 1568 (blue squares) the grants were on the highest average elevations with the steepest slopes. This, explains Hunter was because of policy change by the Viceroyalty: they were now attempting to protect the indigenous peoples' crops from cattle. Ranches were required to be certain distance away from indigenous pueblos and their corresponding agricultural zones. Indigenous nobility were also awarded land during this time. 
  • Between 1577 and 1586 (orange squares) ranches were granted on slopes that held evidence of terrace farming. Hunter explains that this is because the native populations had been hit intensely by disease and were shrinking, abandoning their outlying and least productive terrace farms. 
  • Between 1589 and 1596 (red squares) the government continued to grant land that was formerly used for agricultural terraces. Hunter explains that this is the result of a policy called congregación, of the forced grouping of Native peoples into compact settlements to "facilitate religious conversion." This left much land uncultivated as it was now too far away from the settlements, so the abandoned land was used for more grant land.
  • Between 1600 and 1610 (brown squares), the land grants describe a degraded landscape of eroded topsoil and vanishing groundwater. Hunter proposes that this is the result of overgrazing and the abandonment of agricultural practices on the terraces. (combined with climate changes and deforestation of some areas.)
GIS enabled the land grants, historical documents, to be supplemented with on-site data about elevation, slope, and slope direction that led to Hunter's conclusions about what types of land were developed during which time period. It also shows how connected human history is to the natural features it played out on.

I have acted with honesty and integrity in producing this work and am unaware of anyone who has not.


Hunter, R. (2014). Land use change in New Spain: A three-dimensional historical GIS analysis. The Professional Geographer, 66(2), 260-273.

Monday, January 25, 2016

Cattle Ranching in the Amazon Basin

The Brazilian Amazon has shifted progressively from an agricultural economy towards a cattle economy in only a few decades (Walker et al., p. 732). Today, Amazonian pastures support “a heard of over 70 million animals,” this constitutes about one third of Brazil’s commercial stock (p. 732). Cattle ranching is however also the main driver of deforestation in Amazonian Brazil. At least 80% of all deforested land in the region is a consequence of ranching practices (p. 733).  This dramatic change has not only large repercussions for the environment but additionally for the livelihoods of the residents.
This rapid growth of the cattle industry in the Amazon was a result of extensive government intervention (p. 734).  Since 1946, “federal policy aggressively promoted development efforts to integrate the Amazon region in to the national economy.”  Some of these efforts include reducing transportation costs and improved product quality as well as monetary reform and trade liberalization.
The expansion of the Amazonian highway infrastructure was crucial in the growth of the cattle economy. “In 1968, the federal highway system in Amazônia covered a scant 400 km, a number that grew by 1999 to 56,654 km.” (p.734)This expansion also persuaded state and municipal governments to build roads. This multi-scale investment process has caused a precipitous decline in transportation costs which can be observed in Fig. 1 below as reduced travel times.

This figure shows hours of travel time by road from different locations in Amazonian Brazil to Sao Paulo.  “Sao Paulo has long dominated Brazil’s economy as the premier internal market and internal transshipment point” (p. 734).Through this map we can see how transportation times in many areas have been reduced by 30% and even 50% in some areas from 1968 to 1995.  In fact, by 1995, “about a third of the basin, to the south and east, lay within 50hrs of Sao Paulo by ground, whereas less than 30years before only thin silver in the far southeast had this degree of access” (p. 736).  Extended highways have thus facilitating the growth of the cattle industry by reducing transportation costs and providing access to more isolated communities. 

Source: Walker, R., Browder, J., Arima, E., Simmons, C., Pereira, R., Caldas, M., ... & de Zen, S. (2009). Ranching and the new global range: Amazônia in the 21st century. Geoforum40(5), 732-745.

I have acted with honesty and integrity in producing this work and am unaware of anyone who has not.- Ilka Vega

Deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest for Beef Production

Loss of the Amazon rainforest is one of the most debated and controversial topics being discussed in our time. Amazonian development is an issue that arose when the first colonists and corporate ranchers took advantage of new infrastructure and government largesse. This was done with the goal of moving into bio-diverse, protected regions of the rainforest. This has been occurring since the early 1970s, despite debates regarding whether or not the rainforest could produce a sustainable agricultural economy. Ranching quickly emerged as the Amazon’s primary land use and has caused lots of concern regarding the sustainability of the land when used for beef production. The overgrazing of the land and deforestation has led to issues with erosion, and nutrient poor soil. Amazonian pastures today support herds of over 70 million animals, about one third of Brazil’s commercial stock; they also account for at least 80% of all deforested lands in the region.

 Due to the growing international demand for Amazonian beef, there had been an increase in the deforestation of the Amazon rainforest in order to create pastures to meet the demand for this growing market. The top figure shows the massive increase in the demand for Amazonian beef over the course of the last 45 years. The bottom figure is a map depicting roadways, cities, municipal boundaries, and the density of cattle populations in each municipal boundary. This is an important figure because through this map we can see the cattle population's immense growth in between 1990 and 2005. These maps can also be used to compare areas of the Amazon forest where deforestation and soil deficiencies are occurring in order to establish a connection between corporate ranching operations and local ecological issues. 

Walker, R., Browder, J., Arima, E., Simmons, C., Pereira, R., Caldas, M., ... & de Zen, S. (2009). Ranching and the new global range: Amazônia in the 21st century. Geoforum40(5), 732-745.

I have acted with honesty and integrity in producing this work and am unaware of anyone who has not.
-Daniel Buffington

Aral Sea Shrinking

In the 1960's, the Aral Sea was the fourth largest inland body of water in the world with over sixty-five thousand squared kilometers of surface area. The Amu Darya and the Syr Darya are two rivers that flow into the Aral Sea and were heavily used in the sixties due to Soviet Union plans. Consequently to the over usage of the rivers during the sixties, the Aral Sea visibly split into what is now called the "Large Aral Sea" as the southern region and the "Small Aral Sea" as the northern region. Predictions have been made claiming that by the year 2057, the Aral Sea will have completely diminished if surrounding cities continue methods that are currently emptying the sea. The complexity in disappearance of the Aral sea is the fact that as of now it poses as one of the largest irrigation sources for Central Asia. With an outburst in population growth continuing to threaten the existence of life on earth, the question emerges of how to feed such a surplus of people. As for an answer, humans continually rely on new methods of agriculture which is the reason for the Aral Sea shrinking in the first place. The more agriculture, the more water needed; that is kind of a simple concept that creates an issue nearly impossible to solve. In comparison to the size of the sea in the 1960's, the entire sea has shrank in surface area by 79%. However, that statistic is only dating up to 2011. There is no telling of how much water has been used in the past five years from the Aral Sea. These maps will show the outstanding disappearance of the Aral Sea:

By visibly seeing the shrinkage of the sea, humans naturally will tend to care more about the issue. By analyzing actual maps of the sea and surrounding area maps, someone could come up with other possible water sources to prevent the complete disappearance of sea. The Aral Sea is rather just a smaller mishap that acts as a representation of how humans have impacted this earth.

I have acted with honesty and integrity in producing this work and am unaware of anyone who has not- Austyn Laird
Gaybullaev, B., Chen, S., & Gaybullaev, G. (2014). The large Aral Sea water balance: a future prospective of the large Aral Sea depending on water volume alteration. Carbonates & Evaporites, 29(2), 211-219. doi:10.1007/s13146-013-0174-1

Potential of Solar Power on the University of Texas Campus

The University of Texas has a lot of potential in the solar power industry with the massive amount of uncovered roof space the campus has, which was found using LiDAR (Light detection and Ranging) and GIS. But there are many economic barriers that are stalling the instillation of solar panels on campus, such as the cost effectiveness compared to the already effective and cheap natural gas power plant installed on campus.

 LiDAR is used by creating thousands of measure points in three-dimensional space by placing  the system to the bottom of airplanes and scanning large areas, similar to sonar in ships but airborne. The system scans large areas by shooting out lasers pules and measuring how long it takes for the laser to bounce back from the surface. Which creates images similar to the one below.

By using LiDAR over the University of Texas campus it is seen that there is an abundance of uncovered roofing. Which the author uses as an argument for the purchase and installment of solar panels on the campus. But, the largest problem faced was the initial cost to install solar panels campus wide, and whether or not it would actually benefit the university in the long run. With the cost of solar panels continuing to decrease, it is possible that we may see solar panels on the campus in time, but at the moment prices are too high.

Sounny-Slitine, M. A. Potential of Solar Power on the University of Texas Campus.

Socioeconomic Status and Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes in a Mexican American Community

Socioeconomic status among minorities  plays a role in obesity and likeliness of diabetes. Although the United States had strong health care, this did not hold true for minorities. In recent years the influx of immigrants from Hispanics has increased which also increased diseases from the other countries. In 2004 the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) was established.

The Cohort did this study where they randomly chose the 2,000 participants ages 35- 64 from the border city Brownsville. These participants were all Hispanic and  came from a lower socioeconomic status. In the study they gathered blood samples, weight, body mass index, and waist index from the participants. Prior to this, participants were asked to fast for 10 days.

In the image we see the different age groups and their socioeconomic status (SES). Those from age 35-44 had an average annual income of 17,800 or less and also a smaller percentage of participants with diabetes. 
Those from age 45-54 had a higher income of 21,000 - 31,000 and also an increased percentage of people with diabetes. Those participants with age 55-64 had the highest percent of participants with diabetes. Given that most of all participants were in the lower SES level, less than one fourth of the participants reported to having private health insurance. Ultimately age and SES from incoming immigrants played a big role in obesity and diabetes.This makes sense since five out of the top ten most obese cities come from Texas (a bordering state).

AR, S. J., Pérez, A., Brown, H. S., & Reininger, B. M. Socioeconomic Status and Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes in a Mexican American Community, Cameron County, Texas, 2004-2007.

Tweet Me Your Talk: Geographical Learning and Knowledge Production 2.0

Interestingly, this article focuses on the very relatable topic of shifts in learning. Schuurman argues that geographic knowledge production and translation are shaped by changing work styles that now favor accessibility and concise summaries. In this way, she believes that the academic realm is supporting shorter attention spans that prefer these methods. She cites changing journal formats, academic social networking, and academic reviewing as some of the shifts that are occurring in the academic world. 

Schurrman claims that the reason students are occupied with the shifts in learning is because of the increasing preoccupation with presentation, or aesthetics. Students want to look at something in a journal that is easy to read and easy to find, but also that looks appealing. This is further made clear by the use of PowerPoint presentations, which we are all familiar with. Of course, this problem extends further than just geographic learning; this phenomenon encompasses all academic disciplines. 

In her conclusion, Schuurman posits that these shifts in how we learn can transform our neurological and cognitive skills, which she views as a negative consequence. Perhaps students will get so used to browsing databases and skimming articles that they won't know how to conduct actual research. But perhaps that is not the student's fault.

Nadine Schuurman (2013) Tweet Me Your Talk: Geographical Learning and Knowledge Production 2.0, The Professional Geographer, 65:3, 369-377 
Statistical Confirmation of Indirect Land Use Change in the Brazilian Amazon
This article discusses the growing issue of deforestation in the Amazon Rainforest. This region is found predominantly in Brazil and has become a growing global issue in the environmental conservation field. This article has discovered statistical data that shows one of the largest reasons for this massive deforestation. This problem is called indirect land use change. That is when agriculture activities are displaced from one region and are reconstituted to another region.
Since 2008, Brazil has been committed to reduce deforestation in compliance with the UN’s Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plan, also know as REDD.  The two largest forms of agriculture that are aiding to the deforestation is the cattle industry and soy production. Both of these industries are victims to the indirect land use change. Since 1990, Amazonian cattle population skyrocketed from only twenty-five million to seventy million. And soy production land has increased from 16,000 km^2 to 60,000 km^2. This has contributed to 700,000 km^2 of deforestation.
With the fear of pollution of petroleum products, biofuel has also become a big component in the energy industry. To produce this biofuel, land is need to grow the necessary crops, and Brazil is more than capable of producing this land in the place of deforestation. The fuel crops are displacing the food crops; this is also a part of the indirect land use change. Sixty percent of Amazonian deforestation will be from indirect land use change between the years of 2003 and 2020.
Using a statistical approach, the data showed that based on 761 municipalities, indicated deforestation is originating from soy production. If Brazil was to drop soy production by only ten percent, they would save at least 4,061 km^2 of the forest. In efforts to cover all of the different bases for deforestation, Brazil needs to have their environmental policies recognize land use linkages in agriculture and the economy. Consequently, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by using biofuels must proceed with care and not fall under the category of indirect land use change.

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Arima, E. Y., Richards, P., Walker, R., & Caldas, M. M. (2011). Statistical confirmation of indirect land use change in the Brazilian Amazon.Environmental Research Letters6(2), 024010.

Vertical Accuracy of the National Elevation Dataset

The National Elevation Dataset (NED), maintained by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), is a collection of multiple datasets using different collection techniques that form digital elevation models(DEMs). The various techniques used to collect the data for the DEMs include electronic image correlation (Gestalt Photo Mapper (GPM) instrument), manual profiling (MP) on stereoplotters, contour-to-grid interpolation (CTOG), and an improved contour-to-grid interpolation known as “LineTrace+” (LT4X). 

To verify the accuracy of this combined information we need to look at both the absolute and relative vertical accuracy. We first have to take the reference control point data set and partition it into subsets according to the production method of the quadrangle on which each point was located. The MP and GPM are less accurate than the CTOG and LT4X DEMs.

To find the relative vertical accuracy, we use the equation RV = |delta-ref - delta-NED| where delta-ref is the absolute value of the reference elevation distance and delta-NED is the absolute value of the NED elevation difference. The overall finding of the RV is that it is accurate to at most 22.07 meters off.

As new technology for data collection and higher-accuracy data become more abundant, the NED will become more accurate over time.

Gesch, D., Oimoen, M., Greenlee, S., Nelson, C., Steuck, M., & Tyler, D. (2002). The national elevation dataset. Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing68(1), 5-32.

Topography-based Analysis of Hurricane Katrina Inundation of New Orleans

Incorporated by the U.S. Geological Survey within the National Elevation Dataset, lidar, “light detection and ranging remote sensing,” (1) is used to develop topographic information and assess national elevation variances. Because lidar technology was included within  geospatial datasets for Louisiana before Hurricane Katrina, the elevation and “surface-land” research derived from such technology was effective in determining  the extent of  flooding of the New Orleans area. This previously incorporated data was gathered in 2002 by using light detection to assess the land elevation surrounding Lake Pontchartrain and the Mississippi River. Research found that the land along these rivers was higher than the land in the center of New Orleans, creating a “bowl shape,” (2) as depicted in the map below. Lidar often does not provide precise elevation estimates of water surfaces, as this type of surface alternates; therefore, the water surface elevation “is inferred from surrounding areas or other data sources (2).
After the hurricane, gages placed within Lake Pontchartrain Causeway were used to determine that the elevation of the lake and inundation of New Orleans had “equalized” (3). The magnitude and approximated volume of floodwaters was assessed using previously conducted lidar research as well as water level data provided by a Lake Pontchartrain gage. The graph below demonstrates this integration of data and highlights the “estimated floodwater volume and area within New Orleans” on Sep. 2, 200 and the effect of inundation by the foot to the “cumulative flood volume and area” (4).
Overall, Lidar technology was useful in determining elevation and flood levels as well as the approximated time necessary to transfer floodwater caused by Hurricane Katrina away from New Orleans. Subsequently, the incorporation of lidar elevation data,“ground-based water-level information” (4) and magnitude of flooding within an area “from remote sensing” will allow for water removal plans to be devised, inundation records to be recorded, and efficient, strong construction plans to be carried out.

I have acted with honesty and integrity in producing this work and am unaware of anyone who has not - Hailey Johnson.

Source: Gesch, D. (2005). Topography-based analysis of Hurricane Katrina inundation of New Orleans. Science and the storms: The USGS Response to the Hurricanes of.

Obesity in the World

This map shows the prevalence of obesity in only men ages 18 and over in the entire world.  As you can see, The US, Canada, the UK, Australia, and a few other countries are high in prevalence of obesity (>25%). As of 2014, more than half a billion adults world wide are obese. This is more than double what the rate of obesity was 20 years ago. 

On the contrary, in all regions of world, women are more likely to be obese than men.  

Obesity has the highest prevalence in the Americas, with 61% overweight in both sexes. Obesity rates are low in the Southeast Asia Region, with only 22% overweight, making it the least obese region in the world. 

All in all, it is interesting to see obesity rates drawn out on a map.  We can visualize which regions are battling with obesity the most.  Countries that have more of a plant-based diet, like the Southeast Asia Region, are lower in obesity rates.  This makes us question whether their eating patterns are healthier then those in the Americas, where meat and dairy are highly consumed.  

Thrastardottir, Asta. "The Most Obese Countries In The World." Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 23 Jan. 2015. Web. 25 Jan. 2016.

I have acted with honesty and integrity in producing this work and am unaware of anyone who has not.

Izzy Lackner